Transylvania probably started to become more widely known after the arrival and settlement of the German population in the 12th Century, here in the “Land Beyond the Forest”. The Hungarian kings, looking at the vast areas newly conquered at the beginning of the 11th century, including Transylvania, had to consider the small population of the Hungarian kingdom at that time. One major problem was how to protect this new eastern border of their kingdom. The solution was very simple: they invited Germans from the Moselle, Luxembourg and Rhine to come and settle in a new and wild region. This migration started in the 12th century with the German immigrants being promised many favours and privileges.In exchange, they had to build an almost entirely new world from virtually nothing, and protect it against pagan attacks. The settlers arrived in Transylvania in long processions of horses and carts, carrying everything necessary to build a new and prosperous life. They brought furniture, food and even plants and grapes. They began by working the land and continued with building strong, invincible, fortified churches, forts and citadels. Those were the barriers that stood against Turkish and Tartar invasions for centuries, and were never conquered.